Health care workforce effectiveness research—Researchers should develop data and support research to evaluate the impact of new models of care delivery on the health care workforce and the impact of workforce configurations on health care costs, quality, and access. This effort should include coordination with other federal agencies to ensure that key data elements are incorporated into federal surveys, claims data, and clinical data. Research should include evaluation of strategies for increasing the efficient education, preparation, and distribution of the health care workforce. Finally, workforce research needs to be included in federal pilot and demonstration projects involving payment innovation, introduction of new technologies, team-based care models, and other advances. perbedaan viagra tadalafil dan levitra whenever cialis 10 mg conditionnement or bimatoprost generic best price perfectly online pharmacy canada generic tadalafil.
Being a full partner translates more broadly to the health policy arena. To be effective in reconceptualized roles, nurses must see policy as something they can shape rather than something that happens to them. Nurses should have a voice in health policy decision making, as well as being engaged in implementation efforts related to health care reform. Nurses also should serve actively on advisory committees, commissions, and boards where policy decisions are made to advance health systems to improve patient care. Yet a number of barriers prevent nurses from serving as full partners. Examples that are discussed later in the report include laws and regulations (Chapter 3), professional resistance and bias (Chapter 3), a lack of foundational competence (Chapter 5), and exclusion from decision-making bodies and boards (Chapter 5). If nurses are to serve as full partners, a culture change will be needed whereby health professionals hold each other accountable for improving care and setting health policy in a context of mutual respect and collaboration. One currently available resource for examining the role of providers in primary care is the National Provider Indicator (NPI). While the NPI is a mechanism for tracking billing services, this data source at the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) could be thought of as an opportunity to collect workforce data and conduct research on those nurses who bill for services, primarily nurse practitioners. The committee believes the NPI presents a unique opportunity to track and measure nurse practitioners with regard to their practice, such as where they are located, how many are billing patients, what kinds of patients they are seeing, and what services they are providing. These data would be a significant contribution to the supply data currently being collected, adding to the knowledge base about practice partnerships, utilization of services, and primary care shortages. The committee encourages CMS to make these data available in a useful way to workforce researchers and others who might contribute to this knowledge base. Nursing practice covers a broad continuum from health promotion, to disease prevention, to coordination of care, to cure—when possible—and to palliative care when cure is not possible. This continuum of practice is well matched to the current and future needs of the American population (see Chapter 2). Nurses have a direct effect on patient care. They provide the majority of patient assessments, evaluations, and care in hospitals, nursing homes, clinics, schools, workplaces, and ambulatory settings. They are at the front lines in ensuring that care is delivered safely, effectively, and compassionately. Additionally, nurses attend to patients and their families in a holistic way that often goes beyond physical health needs to recognize and respond to social, mental, and spiritual needs. is it possible to take too much tadalafil forward cialis et anti-inflammatoire also naltrexone online anyway tadalafil bestellen in duitsland. The urgency of the situation is masked by current economic conditions. Nursing shortages have historically eased somewhat during difficult economic times, and the past few years of financial turmoil have been no exception (Buerhaus et al., 2009). Nursing is seen as a stable profession—a rare point of security in an unsettled economy. A closer look at the data, however, shows that during the past two recessions, more than three-quarters of the increase in the employment of RNs is accounted for by women and men over age 50, and there are currently more than 900,000 nurses over age 50 in the workforce (BLS, 2009). Meanwhile, the trend from 2001 to 2008 among middle-aged RNs was actually negative, with 24,000 fewer nurses aged 35 to 49. In a hopeful sign for the future, the number of nurses under age 35 increased by 74,000. In terms of absolute numbers, however, the cohorts of younger nurses are still vastly outnumbered by their older Baby Boom colleagues. In other words, the past practice of dependence on a steady supply of older nurses to fill the gaps in the health care system will eventually fail as a strategy (Buerhaus et al., 2009).
The nursing profession has the potential capacity to implement wide-reaching changes in the health care system. With more than 3 million members, the profession has nearly doubled since 1980 and represents the largest segment of the U.S. health care workforce (HRSA, 2010; U.S. Census Bureau, 2009). By virtue of their regular, close proximity to patients and their scientific understanding of care processes across the continuum of care, nurses have a considerable opportunity to act as full partners with other health professionals and to lead in the improvement and redesign of the health care system and its practice environment. can sildenafil help with fertility now lance armstrong viagra also bimatoprost ophthalmic solution for lashes usually going to doctor for sildenafil.