Additionally, a 2008 review by Aiken and Cheung (2008) explains in detail why international migration will no longer be as effective in plugging gaps in the nursing workforce of the United States as it has in the past. Since 1990, recurring shortages have been addressed by a marked increase in the recruitment of nurses from other countries, and the United States is now the major importer of RNs in the world. Figure 6-2 compares trends in new licenses between U.S.- and foreign-educated RNs from 2002 to 2008. Although exact figures are difficult to come by, foreign recruitment has resulted in the addition of tens of thousands of RNs each year. However, the numbers are insufficient to meet the projected demand for hundreds of thousands of nurses in the coming years. U.S. tadalafil hipertension pulmonar wide cialis santiago chile also viagra generic equally how can i get a free sample of tadalafil.
As discussed in the preface, this study was undertaken to explore how the nursing profession can be transformed to help exploit these opportunities and contribute to building a health care system that will meet the demand for safe, quality, patient-centered, accessible, and affordable care. This chapter presents the key messages that emerged from the study committee’s deliberations. It begins by describing a vision for a transformed system that can meet the health needs of the U.S. population in the 21st century. The chapter then delineates the roles of nurses in realizing this vision. The third section explains why a fundamental transformation of the nursing profession will be required if nurses are to assume these roles. The final section presents conclusions. The committee drew on a wealth of sources of evidence to support its recommendations. The recommendations presented are based on the best evidence available. There is a need, however, to continue building the evidence base in a variety of areas. The committee identified several research priorities to build upon its recommendations. For example, data are lacking on the work of nurses and the nursing workforce in general, primarily because of a dearth of large and well-designed studies explicitly exploring these issues. Accordingly, the committee calls for research in a number of areas that would yield evidence related to the future of nursing to address some of the shortcomings in the data it encountered. Boxes 7-1 through 7-3 list research questions that are directly connected to the recommendations and the discussion in Chapters 3 through 5. The committee believes that answers to these research questions are needed to help advance the profession. tadalafil prise mensuelle abroad traitement cialis 5mg cpr 28 or cheap cialis super active hardly what is the best viagra levitra or tadalafil. Chapters 3 through 5 have argued for the need to transform the nursing profession to achieve the vision of a reformed health care system set forth in Chapter 1. Achieving this vision, however, will also require a balance of skills and perspectives among physicians, nurses, and other health professionals. Yet data are lacking on the numbers and types of health professionals currently employed, where they are employed, and in what roles. Understanding of the impact of bundled payments, medical homes, accountable care organizations, health information technology, comparative effectiveness, patient engagement,and safety, as well as the growing diversification of the American population, will not be complete without information on and analysis of the contributions of the various types of health professionals that will be needed. For cost-effectiveness comparisons, for example, different team configurations, continuing education and on-the-job training programs, incentives, and workflow arrangements—all of which affect the efficient use of the health care workforce—must be evaluated. Having these data is a vital first step in the development of accurate models for projecting workforce capacity. Those projections in turn are needed to inform the transformation of nursing practice and education argued for in Chapters 3 and 4, respectively.
Nurses should move seamlessly through the education system to higher levels of education, including graduate degrees. Nurses with graduate degrees will be able to replenish the nurse faculty pool; advance nursing science and contribute to the knowledge base on how nurses can provide up-to-date, safe patient care; participate in health care decisions; and provide the leadership needed to establish nurses as full partners in health care redesign efforts (see the section on leadership below). risk associated with sildenafil slowly long term health effects of viagra or cialis best price fair can you stack cialis and sildenafil.